SPE Online Education
Planning for Hydrate Formation under Extreme Conditions of Pressure and Brine Salinity
Recorded On: 02/23/2017
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Reliable predictions of hydrate phase equilibrium at extreme conditions, in terms of high salinity and high pressure, are necessary for development and operations in ultra-deep water oil and gas fields. The challenges go beyond hydrate management in pipe flow, such as, setting depth of surface-controlled subsurface safety valve (SCSSV) and effective risk mitigation during drilling, completions and workover activities. An increasing number of fields are being developed/operated with high salinity brines. While the hydrate challenges are recognized, one must also consider the coupling with salt precipitation, which may lead to scale deposition. However, current prediction tools commonly used for hydrates provide inconsistent results and are untested for conditions at ultra-high pressures (up to 30,000 psia), in particular for high salinity brines. This presentation will discuss measurements completed within DeepStar® 12202 Gas Hydrate Formation Under Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and High Salinity and modeling of hydrates phase behavior for high salinity brines (saturated and near-saturated) with different types of salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaBr and CaBr2, as single salts and mixtures) for pressures up to 30,000 psia. To bridge the gap between the measured data and its applicability, a simple but robust correlation is developed that capture the hydrate suppression temperature, at a given pressure, for high salinity brines. The correlation is shown to be applicable for any salt system (single and mixed). The data and correlation are critical tools for the flow assurance engineer for successful hydrate management under such extreme conditions of pressures and brine salinities. This work was initiated, technically guided and funded by DeepStar®, Global Deepwater Technology Development Program as part of Phase XII projects in the Flow Assurance (X200) Committee.
Professor, Colorado School of Mines
Amadeu Sum is a Professor of Chemical & Biological Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines and leads the Phases to Flow Laboratory. He has worked in flow assurance related topics for over 20 years covering gas hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, and multiphase flow. He has worked on numerous JIPs and with DeepStar to advance the knowledge and develop solutions to flow assurance problems. He works closely with industry and numerous researchers around the globe.